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2018

September

Late September

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu alleges in his UN General Assembly Speech that Hezbollah was establishing missile conversion infrastructure in three locations in its south Beirut stronghold, near Rafic Hariri International Airport.

September 25

Lebanon’s parliament ratifies the international Arms Trade Treaty, a 2014 treaty seeking to regulate international trade in conventional arms and prevent their illicit trade, which angers Hezbollah lawmakers, who storm out of the parliamentary session in protest. One Hezbollah legislator, Ali Ammar, says the ratification “infringes on the weapons of the resistance.” Prime Minister Saad Hariri commented that the ratification of the treaty had nothing to do with Hezbollah.

September 23

Lebanese President Michel Aoun gives interview to French daily Le Figaro, in which he defended Hezbollah, its continued possession of a vast weapons arsenal, and its place in Lebanese society.

September 13

Reports emerge that captured and wounded Houthi fighters admitted receiving training from Hezbollah military experts in Yemen.

September 12

A captured Houthi fighter in Yemen admits to receiving ideological training at the hands of Hezbollah.

September 11

The Special Tribunal for Lebanon begins hearing closing arguments, as the prosecution reiterates its findings that the Syrian regime and Hezbollah members – including its former military commander Mustafa Badreddine – masterminded Rafic Hariri’s assassination.

August

August 30

At least three members of Hezbollah are killed in the Druze city of Sweida, in Syria, by a car bomb likely detonated by ISIS or an ISIS-affiliated group.

August 27

A Hezbollah source reiterates the group’s threat that it will fight against Israel and other U.S. regional allies if Washington attacks Iran. Meanwhile, the Yemeni government asks the UN Security Council to open an international investigation into Hezbollah’s meddling in Yemen’s domestic affairs.

August 26

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah warns pro-March 14 political forces not to “play with fire” by acting on Special Tribunal for Lebanon’s findings or holdings.

August 25

The Syrian regime formally requests Hezbollah remain in Syria for an additional, unspecified period, even after the battles in northeastern and northwestern Syria end.

July

July 12

Yemeni government formally complains to Lebanon over Hezbollah’s activities in Yemen and support of the Houthis.

July 10

Saudi-led coalition claims Hezbollah supplied Houthis with military communications system.

June

June 29

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah announces Hezbollah will assist in the return of Syrian refugees to their home country.

June 25

The Armed Forces of Yemen capture seven Hezbollah experts in Saada, aiding in the training of Houthi rebels. Meanwhile, Saudi-led coalition announces killing eight other Hezbollah members in airstrikes in Saada. Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah issues a denial days later.

June 14

President Bashar al-Assad says talk of Hezbollah’s withdrawal from Syria is “premature”.

June 11

The head of Iran’s Qods Force, Qassem Soleimani, says Hezbollah now has “74 parliamentarians out of 128” after recent elections. Soleimaini’s comments elicit outrage from Lebanese politicians, including some within the Hezbollah-allied Free Patriotic Movement. Reports emerge of Hezbollah fighters withdrawing from southern Syria, only to return in Syrian regime military uniforms.

June 9

Hezbollah commander Nasser Jamil Hudroj is killed in clashes with ISIS in eastern Syria.

June 8

Hassan Nasrallah says in a speech that the ultimate decision on Hezbollah’s withdrawal from Syria lies with President Bashar al-Assad, and the group will remain there until he asks for its fighters to withdraw.

June 6

Israel complains to the UN that Hezbollah is training “thousands” of Hamas fighters in Lebanon.

June 5

Friction develops between Hezbollah and Russia over a Russian force deployment on the Syrian-Lebanon border, eliciting protests by the militant group and prompting the Russian force to withdraw from its positions a day later, after the Syrian Army deploys in the area to reduce tensions.

June 3

Moroccan Shiite activists demand that the Moroccan Foreign Ministry reveal evidence of Hezbollah’s connection to the Polisario.

May

May 24

Morocco’s foreign minister claims that Hezbollah began aiding the Polisario after Moroccan authorities arrested Qassem Mohammad Tajeddine, one of Hezbollah’s top financiers in Africa, on March 12, 2017.

May 17

The United States Treasury Department sanctions top Hezbollah financier Mohammad Ibrahim Bazzi and Abdallah Safieddine, its key financial representative to Tehran. Iraq takes measures against Hezbollah in compliance with US sanctions.

May 12

The Moroccan foreign minister reveals more details on Hezbollah-Polisario connection. He claims the two groups met at a secret location in Algiers, known to Algerian intelligence, which was rented by an Algerian woman married to a Hezbollah member. This Hezbollah member was recruited as an agent to establish contacts, especially with the Polisario. The foreign minister adds that the Iranian embassy in Algiers – particularly its Cultural Attaché Amir al-Mousaoui – acted as the hub of this connection. He indicates that since March 2017, high-ranking Hezbollah leaders had been traveling to Tindouf, Algeria to meet with Polisario officials, oversee their training, and establish installations and facilities. The foreign minister says the specific Hezbollah officials responsible for contact with the Polisario were Hezbollah’s foreign relations official Haidar Subhi Hadid, its military advisor Ali Musa Dakdouk, and Hajj Abu Wael al-Zalzali, its military and logistical planning official.

May 11

Moroccan Foreign Ministry spokesman says Rabat had evidence that Hezbollah had armed and trained Polisario members in guerilla warfare tactics and tried to establish a commando unit within the Western Saharan group. He also said that Moroccan authorities had discovered that Hezbollah had transferred a shipment of weapons and explosives to the Polisario, including SA-9 and SA-11 missiles.

May 6

Hezbollah wins 12 seats in Lebanon’s first parliamentary elections in nine years, and an additional two seats for its allies Elwalid Succariyeh and Jamil al-Sayyed, bringing the total seats for its Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc to 14.

May 1

Morocco cuts diplomatic ties with Iran over Tehran backing the Polisario in the Western Sahara via Hezbollah. Morocco alleges Hezbollah was providing aid to the Polisario via Algeria, in addition to forging ties over laundering money and selling weapons and narcotics. Hezbollah and Algeria deny Rabat’s accusations.

April

April 30

30 Hezbollah-affiliated thugs attack Ali al-Amine, the editor-in-chief of al-Janoubia – which is critical of Hezbollah – who was running as a parliamentary candidate.

April 26

Saudi Arabia presses the UN Security Council to take a “determined” stance against Hezbollah and its sponsor Iran.

April 24

Hezbollah member dies in mysterious explosion in the south Lebanon city of Sidon.

April 14

On his second visit to Hezbollah’s stronghold in south Lebanon, Prime Minister Saad Hariri emphasizes the state’s sole responsibility for the well-being of its citizens, and the army’s sole responsibility to protect them.

April 9

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah claims that, after the September 11, 2001 terror attacks, the United States offered Hezbollah billions of dollars – through Lebanese-American businessman, lobbyist, and advisor to the UAE’s Crown prince George Nader – to cease “resistance” against Israel.

April 2

An attempt to assassinate anti-Hezbollah Shiite cleric Sheikh Abbas al-Jawhari is carried out; al-Jawhari accuses Hezbollah.

March

March 30

Hezbollah denies Saudi accusations of sending ballistic missiles to Houthis in Yemen from Lebanon.

March 23

Houthi leader Abdel Malek al-Houthi reiterates promise to send his fighters to reinforce Hezbollah in future war against Israel.

March 22

Sheikh Abbas al-Jawhari – an anti-Hezbollah Shiite cleric running for elections against the group in Baalbek/Al-Hermel – is arrested, and his press office accuses Hezbollah of framing him. Al-Jawhari is released 24 hours later without being charged.

March 20

UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres calls on Lebanon to disarm Hezbollah.

March 18

Ali Hassan Tarhini – a senior commander in Hezbollah’s combat engineer corps – is killed fighting in Syria. Emirati State Minister for Foreign Affairs claims Qatar gave a total of $700 million to a collection of terror groups, which included Hezbollah.

March 16

Hezbollah presents elections in the Bekaa Valley as a continuation of the victory over ISIS, and Nasrallah accuses his electoral foes of supporting ISIS. Reports surface that Hezbollah was attempting to convert and recruit members of the Moroccan community in Abidjan, Ivory Coast through religious and educational institutions built by local Lebanese expatriates.

March 13

Farda News leaks comments by Hassan Nasrallah stating that he holds the religious-political ideology of Wilayat al-Faqih higher than the Lebanese constitution, and that Hezbollah was fighting in Syria to defend Shiism and not President Bashar al-Assad. Hezbollah quickly denies the comments.

March 5

Undated picture surfaces of Hassan Nasrallah meeting with IRGC-QF commander Qassem Soleimaini.

March 3

Prominent Lebanese Shiite cleric Ali al-Amin says neither Hezbollah nor Iran represent Shiism.

February

February 28

Hezbollah launches the “Sacred Defense” video game, simulating its involvement in the Syrian Civil War and combat against Sunni groups.

February 17

Maj. Gen. Yahya Safavi – Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei’s top military adviser – claims Hezbollah’s experience in the Syrian Civil War has transformed it into a strong army.

February 16

The United States Justice Department charges three individuals with exporting drone parts to Hezbollah.

February 13

Akram al-Kaabi, the head of Hezbollah al-Nujaba Movement, visits Hezbollah in Lebanon, and says his fighters are “ready to fight alongside Hezbollah,” in a future war with Israel.

February 12

Two captured Houthi fighters confess to receiving military training and education from Hezbollah.

February 2

The United States imposes new sanctions on Hezbollah-linked financial institutions and individuals.

January

January 31

Hezbollah responds to Israeli Defense Minister Avigdor Liberman’s claim of Israeli sovereignty over the disputed “Gas Block 9,” saying the group would use force to defend Lebanon’s natural resources from “Israeli greed.”

January 15

Hezbollah field commander Mohammad Sadeq Sharafeddine, aka Abi al-Huda, is buried after being killed in clashes against ISIS in Syria’s eastern desert.

January 11

Attorney General Jeff Sessions announces formation of anti-Hezbollah financing and narcoterrorism team.

January 3

Hezbollah’s Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah gives comprehensive interview to Al-Mayadeen, in which he claims that the Obama administration and U.S. intelligence agencies attempted to communicate with Hezbollah indirectly, via what he called “mutual friends.” Nasrallah also alleges that in the wake of the September 11, 2001 terror attacks, a Lebanese-American citizen handed him a letter from then-Vice President Dick Cheney offering to remove Hezbollah from the State Department’s Foreign Terrorist Organization List and $2 Billion, among other incentives, if the group would stop threatening Israel.

2017

December

December 30

Hezbollah joins forces with Amal Movement in all electoral districts – running on the same tickets – ahead of Lebanon’s parliamentary elections in May.

December 24

Three Hezbollah fighters – one communications specialist and two explosives and mining experts – are killed in coalition airstrikes on Houthi positions in Yemen. The New York Times reports that Saudi Arabia is seeking to form an anti-Hezbollah militia. Saudi officials deny these claims the following day.

December 18

Hezbollah explosives expert killed in coalition airstrikes in the Tahita directorate in the Western coast of Yemen.

December 13

Saudi Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir says the solution to Lebanon’s problems is disarming Hezbollah and transforming the group into a purely political party. A report in the Lebanese daily An-Nahar indicates Hezbollah may have resumed sending weapons and other aid to Palestinian armed groups.

December 11

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah calls for a third Palestinian Intifada in response to U.S. President Donald Trump’s decision to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. ISIS releases a video from captured cellphones entitled “God Will Distance Them From You [Fasayakfiyakuhumu Allah] 4” which depicts fallen Hezbollah fighters in Abu Kamal, videos of their battle, and their frustration during the fight.

December 9

Video surfaces of Hezbollah hosting Qais al-Khazali, the head of the Asaib Ahl al-Haq Iraqi Shiite militia, and taking him on tour of Lebanon’s southern border with Israel.

November

November 26

Saudi report claims Hezbollah is funding Hamas through bank accounts in Algeria. Algerian Minister of Religious Affairs and Endowments denies the report.

November 19

Under Saudi pressure, Arab League states condemn Hezbollah as a terrorist organization, as the Bahraini Foreign Minister says Lebanon is now under the “total control” of the organization.

November 8

Hezbollah and the Assad regime (with assistance of Iraqi Shiite militias) capture Abu Kamal – on Syrian-Iraqi border – which is the last major ISIS-held town in Syria.

November 8

Hezbollah and the Assad regime (with assistance of Iraqi Shiite militias) capture Abu Kamal – on Syrian-Iraqi border – which is the last major ISIS-held town in Syria

November 5

Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri unexpectedly resigns while visiting Saudi Arabia. Hariri would eventually return and resume his post as premier, on the condition that Hezbollah and all Lebanese political factions adhere to a policy of regional dissociation and non-interference in the affairs of other Arab states.

October

October 10

Syrian Army, Hezbollah, and “Resistance Axis” forces launch successful operations against rebel forces south of Damascus, ISIS in the eastern Syrian desert towards the Iraqi border – with Iraqi PMF militias simultaneously pressing against ISIS from the Iraqi side of the border – and the Nusra Front in Hama’s countryside.

October 8

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah gives speech to commemorate the one-week anniversary of the death of the commander Ali Hadi al-Asheq (al-Hajj Abbas), detailing his long career with Hezbollah. Nasrallah claims ISIS has almost been completely eradicated but accuses the United States of protecting the terror group and prolonging its organizational life. He also addresses U.S. financial sanctions on Lebanon, and says Hezbollah supports the Lebanese government’s decision to isolate the Lebanese economy from these sanctions.

October 7

Hezbollah, the Syrian Army, and “Resistance Axis” forces seize Lisan al-Sakhr Heights and Tal al-Dabu’ in the southwestern countryside of Damascus, putting them in control of the Nusra Front supply route between Beit Tima and Kafr Hour, in the direction of Beit Jan. Hezbollah, the Syrian Army, and “Resistance Axis” forces seize complete control over the connecting road between al-Sukhnah and Deir Ezzor.

October 5

Hezbollah, the Syrian Army, and “Resistance Axis” forces seize territories from ISIS in the southeastern countryside of Homs, putting them on the outskirts of the northern, western, and eastern sides of the city of Qaryatayn.

October 4

Hezbollah, Syrian Army, and “Resistance Axis” forces seize Marker Points 196-204 on the Jordanian-Syrian border. Meanwhile, Hezbollah Military Media claims Hezbollah, Syrian Army, and “Resistance Axis” forces completely wiped out the ISIS presence in Hama’s eastern countryside, after seizing its last strongholds in the area. Hezbollah and the Syrian Army repel an ISIS attack on their positions on the connecting road between the cities of Palmyra and al-Sukhna, in Homs’ eastern countryside.

October 3

Hezbollah loses military commander Ali al-Hadi al-Asheq (Al-Hajj Abbas) – a member of its special forces since 1992 – in confrontations against ISIS in the desert of Palmyra.

October 2

Hezbollah and the Syrian Army continue operations in the southeastern countryside of Damascus, seizing Rajm al-Hadlah, Rajm Bakr, Khibrat Bakr, Khibrat Radifi, where many opposition headquarters and communications centers were located. Hezbollah, Syrian Army, and “Resistance Axis” forces continue advances on the Syrian-Jordanian border as well, seizing Marker Points 186-195, and in the process killing “Abu Hassan” – a Jaysh Usud al-Sharqiya military commander – and Ayman Thaher al-Buhayr, a Jaysh Ahrar al-Asha’ir commander.

September

September 30

Nasrallah gives speech in which he warns against domestic confrontations between Lebanon’s different factions, and that internal divisions pose a risk because the United States is “plotting” new regional wars. He also addresses the Syrian refugees in Lebanon, saying it is in their interest to return to their country. He also says that ISIS was now on the verge of destruction. Nasrallah additionally argues against Kurdish independence, saying it is not a matter of self-determination, but it is being imposed upon the Kurds as a part of a plot to divide the region.

September 29

As part of “Operation Wal-Fajr [Dawn] 3,” Hezbollah loses group of fighters in a clash with ISIS east of Hmeimah – on the edges Homs’ southeastern countryside – including one of the senior “correspondents” of its military media, Ali Abdullatif Ammar, aka “Jibril.” Hezbollah and the Syrian Army make advances against the group in the area.

September 23

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah gives speech on third night of Ashoura, claiming that the combined forces of Hezbollah, Syria, Iran, and Iraq saved the region from ISIS.

September 12

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah declares victory in Syria, says only “isolated battles” remain to be fought.

September 9

Hezbollah claims to discover an Israeli espionage device in south Lebanon’s Kfarchouba area, and alerts the Lebanese Army and intelligence community, who move into the area.

September 5

The Syrian Army seizes Deir Ezzor from ISIS control, with Hezbollah’s assistance.

August

August 31

Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis – deputy commander of the Iraqi Popular Mobilization Forces – addresses flowery letter to Hassan Nasrallah, saying both the PMF and Hezbollah are “one front in confronting the challenges [lit. revetments] of terrorism, excess, and Zionism,” and acknowledging both Nasrallah’s and Hezbollah’s primacy as the heads of the regional “resistance” movements. Separately, Hassan Nasrallah reveals that he traveled to Damascus and discussed evacuation of ISIS fighters from Lebanese-Syrian border area to Abu Kamal, on Syrian-Iraqi border, with Bashar al-Assad.

August 30

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah issues statement addressing Iraqi anger over transfer of ISIS fighters from Western Qalamoun to Abu Kamal, downplaying their ability to strategically shift the course of the battle against the group in the area. He also notes that Hezbollah has been the “tip of the spear” in fighting ISIS in the eastern Syrian desert. He also states that, “Hezbollah entered in full force to the battlefronts alongside the Syrian army to confront the takfiri groups from the beginning of [the Syrian civil] war…”

August 28

Hezbollah brokers deal to evacuate ISIS fighters, families, and civilians from Syrian-Lebanese border to the border of Iraq, prompting political and military opposition from the United States. U.S. intervention includes air strikes, bombing the road ahead of the convoy to prevent it from reaching its destination of Abu Kamal, and sending humanitarian supplies to the convoy. As part of negotiated agreement with Hezbollah – subsequently accepted by the Assad regime –ISIS’ remaining 310 fighters entirely vacate Syria’s Western Qalamoun and are bused to Abu Kamal on the Syrian-Iraqi border. Hezbollah and the Syrian Army move into the vacated area and begin entrenching themselves in strategic positions in throughout the Western Qalamoun. Nasrallah gives victory speech.

August 27

Hezbollah and the Syrian Army declare total ceasefire with ISIS in Syria’s Western Qalamoun to go into effect at 7:00 AM, after making significant gains against the Sunni Islamist group.

August 26

Hezbollah and Syrian Army seize Shmeis – Tam al-Mal Heights, in the southern sector of the operations in Syria’s Western Qalamoun.

August 25

ISIS fighters begin surrendering to Hezbollah and Syrian regime forces as “Operation if You Return We Will Return,” continues into its seventh day.

August 24

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah gives a speech on the ongoing operations against ISIS, saying his group takes credit for the battle “in both its Lebanese and Syrian dimensions,” appearing to take credit for the LAF’s operations against ISIS on the Lebanese-Syrian border. Meanwhile, Hezbollah and the Syrian Army continue advances against ISIS, including the strategically important Ras al-Shahout crossing on the Syrian-Lebanese border, south of Syria’s Western Qalamoun barrens.

August 23

Hezbollah and Syrian Army continue “Operation if You Return We Will Return,” against ISIS in Syria’s Western Qalamoun, seizing territory in the northern, eastern, and southern sectors of the area, and capturing and destroying one of the HQs of the local ISIS Emir.

August 21

Hezbollah claims to use drones in strikes against Islamic State in Syria, as part of its “Operation if You Return We Will Return,” seizing additional territory from ISIS in Syria’s Western Qalamoun. Kuwaiti security officials arrest the 14th member of the Abdali Cell, Abdul Muhsin Jamal al-Shatti.

August 20

Hezbollah and the Syrian Army continue, “Operation If You Return, We Will Return” against ISIS, seizing several areas in Syria’s Western Qalamoun. Hezbollah and the SAF also take the town of Hmeimeh in the eastern Homs countryside.

August 19

Hezbollah announces onset of joint assault with SAF on ISIS in Syria-Lebanon border area; LAF denies coordination in the operation while fighting the group in Lebanon’s Ras Baalbek, Al-Qaa, and al-Fakeha. Meanwhile, Hezbollah and the SAF launch “Operation If You Return, We Will Return,” making advances against ISIS in Syria’s Western Qalamoun, including seizing the strategically important Mount Mawsil. The territorial goal of the operation is to seize 310 square kilometers from ISIS.

August 18

Hezbollah and the Syrian Army make advances against ISIS in al-Jarajir and Qara barrens in Syria’s Western Qalamoun, seizing several key points in the area from the Sunni militant group. Hezbollah condemns an ISIS attack in Barcelona.

August 13

Kuwaiti security officials arrest Mustafa Abdulnabi Ali Bader Khan, the 13th member of the Hezbollah-linked Abdali Cell. Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah gives speech on 11th anniversary of the ceasefire of the July 2006 War with Israel, saying that the Israelis emptied the ammonia tanks in Haifa due to fear of Hezbollah’s rocket capabilities, and should now worry about their nuclear reactor in Dimona.

August 6

Hezbollah targets ISIS formation near Khirbet Dawoud, on the Lebanese-Syrian border, with rocket and artillery fire.

August 5

Hezbollah opens a virtual target range – the “first of its kind in Lebanon” according to Hezbollah’s military media – at its Mleeta Resistance Tourism Landmark, allowing visitors to engage in simulations of Hezbollah’s battles and operations. Several Hezbollah officials and parliamentarians attend the opening ceremony.

August 4

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah gives victory speech after battle of Arsal, in which he says the Lebanese government must “directly coordinate” the repatriation of Syrian refugees in Lebanon with the Assad regime – in essence, attempting to use the refugee issue to restore the political ties between Beirut and the regime in Damascus. Nasrallah also notes that the LAF is responsible for liberating Lebanese territory under ISIS control, but that Hezbollah will be available to provide assistance. He further announces that Hezbollah and the SAF will simultaneously open a front against ISIS in Syria, requiring coordination from the LAF. Nasrallah also denies any connection between Hezbollah and the Abdali Cell.

July

July 30

Lebanese General Directorate of General Security (GDGS) oversees exchange of bodies of fighters between Hezbollah and Nusra Front and begins evacuation of Nusra Front fighters and their families. Hezbollah fighters capture an abandoned M113 APC in Lebanon’s Arsal Barrens, which had previously been seized by Nusra Front from the Lebanese Army in the 2014 Arsal Battle.

July 27

Ceasefire negotiated by Abbas Ibrahim among Hezbollah, the Syrian regime, and Nusra Front goes into effect at 06:00 AM local time. Hezbollah pressed its advantage in the hours leading up to the ceasefire, seizing territory from Nusra Front in the early dawn. The agreement allows Nusra fighters and their families to evacuate to Idlib and requires Nusra to return the bodies of 5 Hezbollah fighters.

July 26

Nasrallah gives speech on Arsal battle, claiming that negotiations with the Nusra Frontare ongoing, but that the group had turned down offers for a cease-fire, and “serious negotiations” had only begun the day before. He also says that Hezbollah will hand over entire area to Lebanese Army after expelling Nusra, if the LAF requests it. Abbas Ibrahim, the head of Lebanon’s General Directorate of General Security, had been in Damascus negotiating the terms of the ceasefire agreement with Syrian officials – including those that would handle the logistic aspects of the transfer of the Nusra militants to Idlib – prior to the speech. Reports indicate that an official from Hezbollah was also present in Syria at the same time as Ibrahim.

July 24

Hezbollah’s military media denies reports that the group targeted a field hospital during the clashes in Arsal.

July 22

Kuwait submits formal complaint to Lebanon over Hezbollah’s activities in the Gulf state, including its backing of the Abdali Cell.

July 22

Hezbollah advances against Nusra Front in Lebanon’s Arsal, seizing territory from the group within Lebanon. Simultaneously, on the Syrian front, the Syrian Army and Hezbollah press against the Nusra Front in Fleita and the Western Qalamoun. Hezbollah, the Syrian regime, and the Nusra Front conduct ceasefire negotiations amidst the fighting through Abbas Ibrahim, the head of Lebanon’s General Directorate of General Security.

July 20

Houthi leader Abdel Malek al-Houthi declares that his fighters will reinforce Hezbollah in Lebanon and Syria in any future war against Israel.

July 20

Hezbollah launches battle in Arsal Barrens – which is partially Lebanese and partially Syrian –against Nusra Front and ISIS militants, along with the Syrian Army. The group begins its assault from within Lebanon on the Sunni militants with an artillery and rocket barrage on Nusra positions in Lebanon’s Dahr al-Hawa, Al-Qaznah, Wadi al-Kheil Heights, and Shaabat al-Nahleh in the outskirts of the Lebanese town of Arsal. Simultaneously, Hezbollah and Syrian Army detachments launch an attack on Sunni militant positions in Al-Dalil Heights, Talat al-Kura, and Talat al-Alam in the Syrian Western Qalamoun’s Fleita outskirts.

June

June 23

Hassan Nasrallah, during his Quds Day 2017 speech, threatens that “thousands, and hundreds of thousands” of Shiite Islamist fighters from across the Arab and Muslim world will fight Israel alongside Hezbollah in a future war.

June 8

The United States arrests Samer al-Debek, from Michigan, and Ali Kourani, from the Bronx, on charges of plotting Hezbollah attacks against Israeli and American targets in the United States and Panama.

May

May 20

Hezbollah claims it caught an Iraqi man spying for Israel in Lebanon.

May 19

Saudi Arabia and the United States blacklist Hashem Safieddine, the head of Hezbollah’s powerful Executive Council and Hassan Nasrallah’s heir-apparent.

May 11

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah announces the withdrawal of Hezbollah forces from positions on the Syrian-Lebanese border and their handover to the Lebanese Army. Hezbollah’s forces were deployed into Syria to spearhead the campaign to reassert the Syrian regime’s control over its borders with Iraq and Jordan, as well as the cities of Deir Ezzor and Deraa.

April

April 20

Hezbollah holds a provocative media tour of the Israeli-Lebanese border. The next day, Prime Minister Saad Hariri carries out the first visit by a Lebanese premier to south Lebanon in decades, in explicit rejection of Hezbollah’s border tour and presence.

March

March 16

Moroccan authorities arrest Qassem Tajideen, one of Hezbollah’s top financiers. He was later extradited to the United States.

March 11

Reports emerge that Iran built a Hezbollah weapons factory in south Lebanon.

March 2

Hezbollah and Russia help Syrian President Bashar al-Assad retake Palmyra from ISIS.

January

January 9

U.S. State Department designates Ali Daamoush and Mustafa Mughniyeh as Specially Designated Global Terrorists under Executive Order 13224.

2016

December

December 22

The Battle of Aleppo, which began on July 19, 2012, ends in a decisive victory for Assad, Hezbollah, and other forces allied with the Syrian regime.

December 7

Israeli Defense Minister Avigdor Liberman says Israel’s airstrikes in Syria are meant to prevent chemical weapons from reaching Hezbollah.

November

November 24

Israel accuses Iran and Hezbollah of smuggling arms in commercial flights through Beirut’s Rafic Hariri International Airport. The head of the airport’s security denies the claims.

November 13

Hezbollah holds a large military parade in Syria’s Al-Qusayr, flaunting U.S.-made M113 APCs, but also Russian-made T-55 tanks. Israel claims the Lebanese Army gave the U.S.-supplied APCs to Hezbollah, but U.S. investigations proved this claim to be false. It appears that the military equipment on display was taken from the SLA, civil war surplus, or forcibly seized from the LAF in the 1980s.

October

October 31

Hezbollah’s ally Michel Aoun is elected president of Lebanon. Iran declares his election a “victory for Nasrallah.” UAE sentences seven people to life in prison for establishing a terror cell linked to Hezbollah.

October 20

Saudi Arabia designates two individuals and one organization for links to Hezbollah. The United States Treasury Department sanctions four Hezbollah operatives and a firm, and the State Department followed suit with sanctions against Hezbollah Special Forces commander Haytham Ali Tabatabai for activities in Syria and Yemen.

October 6

Israeli security forces thwart a Hezbollah terror plot to plant bombs in the Haifa area.

August

August 15

Mohammad Hassan Hamdan, a resident of Dearborn, Michigan, pleads guilty to planning to travel to Lebanon and fighting for Hezbollah in Syria.

July

July 29

Brazilian police arrest Fadi Hassan Nabha, a former Hezbollah member, on drug-trafficking charges.

July 12

Reports emerge that Hezbollah is training Afghan Shiites as snipers to fight for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.

July 1

Hezbollah cancels its Quds Day activities for the first time, citing heightened security concerns from the Syrian Civil War fallout.

June

June 25

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah says he is sending more fighters to Aleppo and downplays the impact of U.S. banking sanctions on Hezbollah’s finances.

June 12

Hezbollah is suspected of placing explosives outside of Lebanon’s BLOM Bank in central Beirut, to dissuade it from complying with U.S. banking sector sanctions on the group.

June 10

Lebanese banks close 100 Hezbollah-linked bank accounts and say 3,000 more are on the way.

May

May 19

Hezbollah and the Syrian Army take Eastern Ghouta from rebel forces.

May 17

Lebanon’s Central Bank governor says Lebanese banks must comply with HIFPA, and banks begin suspending hundreds of Hezbollah-linked bank accounts.

May 13

Hezbollah’s military commander Mustafa Badreddine is killed in Syria, becoming the group’s most important casualty in the civil war. Former Argentine President Carlos Menem claims Hezbollah killed his son on March 15, 1995.

May 9

Hezbollah claims victory in local elections in heavily-Shiite eastern Lebanon areas, but does not fare so well in Beirut.

May 2

Reports emerge that senior Hezbollah commanders are sending their sons to Europe to ensure they are not sent to fight in Syria.

April

April 18

The Arab Parliament designates Hezbollah as a terror organization.

April 11

Bahrain becomes the latest Gulf Country to label Hezbollah a terror organization, following a similar designation by the UAE.

April 8

Persian Gulf states begin expelling dozens of Lebanese expats for ties to Hezbollah.

April 6

Cairo-based NileSat, one of the leading Arab satellite operators, drops Al-Manar.

April 5

Satellite images reveal what appears to be a Hezbollah missile base in Syria’s Qusayr.

March

March 11

The Arab League officially lists Hezbollah as a terrorist organization.

March 2

The six-member Gulf Cooperation Council – including Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain, Oman and Qatar – labels Hezbollah a terrorist organization, opening up the possibility of further sanctions against the group. Saudi Arabia cuts its military aid to the Lebanese Army.

February

February 24

The Yemeni government says Hezbollah is fighting alongside Houthi rebels.

February 16

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah threatens to bomb Haifa’s ammonia tanks in a future war with Israel.

February 1

The DEA announces arrest of four Hezbollah operatives who were using millions in cocaine proceeds to fund the group’s terror activities and its operations in Syria.

January

January 28

The United States Treasury Department sanctions two men – Mohammad Noureddine and Hamdi Zahereddine – and a company for laundering money on behalf of Hezbollah.

January 11

Hezbollah field commanders claim they are receiving heavy weapons directly from Russia, with no strings attached.

January 7

The United States Treasury Department sanctions Lebanese financier Ali Youssef Charara and his telecommunications company for financial ties to Hezbollah.

January 6

Bahrain says it has arrested an Iranian and Hezbollah-linked terror cell planning attacks in its territory.

January 4

Hezbollah attacks two Israeli military vehicles in response to the killing of Samir Kuntar in Syria. Israel responds by firing artillery shells into south Lebanon.

2015

December

December 19

President Barack Obama signs HIFPA of 2015 into law. Samir Kuntar is killed in Syria in an Israeli airstrike.

December 18

Hezbollah launches a large recruitment drive, targeting men as young as 17, as their losses in Syria mount amidst deepening involvement in the neighboring country’s conflict.

December 16

Congress passes the “Hizballah International Financing Prevention Act of 2015 (HIFPA),” imposing tough sanctions on banks that knowingly do business with Hezbollah.

December 4

Saudi-based ArabSat – one of the Middle East’s main satellite TV providers – stops broadcasting Al-Manar.

November

November 12

Two explosions – carried out by ISIS – rip through the Burj al-Barajneh neighborhood of Hezbollah’s south Beirut suburbs stronghold. The two ISIS suicide bombers killed 43 people and wounded 239. Israel raises Hezbollah rocket estimate to 150,000, most of which are Katyushas, but including some long-range missiles.

October

October 10

Hassan Hussein al-Haj is killed fighting opposition forces in Idlib. He is the most senior Hezbollah figure to be killed in the Syrian Civil War up to that date.

October 9

U.S. prosecutors indict Iman Kobeisi and Joseph Asmar with plotting to launder drug money and broker other illegal deals for Hezbollah.

September

September 30

Russia begins official military involvement in the Syrian Civil War, a move which Hezbollah said it would welcome on September 25.

August

August 26

Ahmad Ibrahim al-Mughassil, a senior Hezbollah operative involved in the 1996 Khobar Towers bombing, is arrested in Beirut and flown to Saudi Arabia to face prosecution. Hezbollah throws its support behind anti-government protests raging in Lebanon.

August 13

Kuwait arrests three members of a larger terrorist cell – known as the Abdali Cell [Khaliyat al-Abdali] –tied to Hezbollah, which was planning to carry out attacks in the country. The cell had stockpiled a large number of weapons and ammunition in their homes. Kuwaiti authorities would eventually discover that the cell was comprised of 25 Kuwaitis and one Iranian.

July

July 22

ISIS attacks Hezbollah near Qusayr and claims that it killed “dozens” of them. Hezbollah issues a denial. The United States Treasury Department sanctions three Hezbollah officials – Mustafa Badreddine, Fouad Shukur, and Ibrahim Akil – and businessman Abdel Nur Shalan.

July 2015 – September 2015

Hezbollah and the Syrian Army launch an operation to take the town of Zabadani, ending in a ceasefire with significant gains for the pro-regime forces. Hezbollah and the Syrian Army claim to have taken 85% of the city – the opposition said they only took 75% – and the next day rebel forces besiege the city.

June

June 10

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah announces that Hezbollah is fighting ISIS in the Qalamoun Mountains. The United States Treasury Department sanctions three Lebanese men – Adham Tabaja, Qassem Hojeij, and Hussein Ali Faour – and their businesses over links to Hezbollah.

May

May 29

Cyprus police arrest Hussein Bassam Abdallah, who was tasked by Hezbollah to plan attacks against Israeli targets in Europe. Abdallah, a dual Lebanese-Canadian citizen, was later sentenced to six years in prison by a Cypriot court.

May 27

Saudi Arabia sanctions Hezbollah military leaders Khalil Youssef Harb and Mohammad Qablan.

May 22

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah says the organization may call for a “general mobilization” to fight ISIS in Syria.

May 2015 – June 2015

Hezbollah leads another offensive in the Qalamoun Mountains alongside the Syrian Army, emerging victorious and recapturing most of the mountainous Lebanese-Syrian border region, pushing rebel forces to the outskirts of Arsal.

February

February 16

Nasrallah admits that Hezbollah has sent fighters to Iraq to fight ISIS.

February 11

Hezbollah spearheads an operation with the Syrian Army south of Damascus, taking Deir al-Adas, Deir Maker, Tal al-Arous, and Tal al-Sarjeh from the Nusra Front.

January

January 28

Hezbollah kills two Israeli soldiers – Cpt. Yochai Kalangel and Sgt. Dor Chaim Nini – on the Lebanese-Israeli border, in retaliation for the strike that killed Jihad Mughniyeh. Israel responds with artillery fire against south Lebanon, accidentally killing a Spanish UNIFIL peacekeeper. Hezbollah immediately sends calming messages to the Israelis via intermediaries saying it did not want escalation and the matter was closed. Nasrallah gives a speech two days later saying Hezbollah does not want a war with Israel but doesn’t fear it either.

January 18

Israel carries out a strike in the Golan Heights against a Hezbollah convoy, killing six individuals. One was Jihad Mughniyeh, the son of Hezbollah’s late terrorist mastermind Imad Mughniyeh.

January 15

Nasrallah admits an Israeli spy infiltrated Hezbollah but attempts to downplay the importance of the security breach.

2014

December

December 16

Hezbollah claims it has uncovered a Lebanese businessman working as a Mossad spy operating within its ranks. Hezbollah says the spy had been working for Israel for years and helped thwart several of the group’s revenge operations for the assassination of Imad Mughniyeh.

November

November 22

Iran claims it has given Hezbollah “precise and long-range” weapons that “can reach [Israel’s nuclear reactor] in Dimona.” Hezbollah confirms it received these “pinpoint accurate” weapons from Iran a day later.

November 4

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah declares that Hezbollah is still ready and able to fight Israel despite its involvement in Syria’s Civil War.

October

October 30

Hezbollah operative Mohammad Amadar is arrested in Peru, after being allegedly tasked by the group to target Jews and Israelis in the country.

October 7

Hezbollah detonates a bomb on the Lebanese-Israeli border, wounding two Israeli soldiers. The IDF responds with cross-border shelling.

October 5

Hezbollah and Nusra Front clash on the Lebanese-Syrian border, leading to the death of two Hezbollah and 16 Nusra fighters.

August

August 30

Dino Bouterse, the president of Suriname’s son, pleads guilty to offering Hezbollah a base in his country to attack U.S. targets.

July

July 31

Hezbollah commander Ibrahim al-Hajj is killed while “fulfilling his jihadi duty” in Iraq.

July 10

The United States Treasury Department sanctions Beirut-based Stars Group Holding, which it said purchased electronics and other technology via a network of offices in the UAE and China for making sophisticated military equipment for Hezbollah, including materials for aerial drones.

June

June 11

Fawzi Ayoub, a 47-year old Lebanese-Canadian citizen and resident of Detroit on the FBI’s list of most-wanted terror suspects, is reportedly killed fighting in Syria.

May

May 17

Lebanese President Michel Suleiman, formerly sympathetic to Hezbollah, urges the group to withdraw from Syria.

April

April 18

Thailand arrests two Hezbollah members – Daoud Farhat and Youssef Ayad – planning attacks on Israeli tourists.

April 8

Germany bans the “Orphaned Children Project-Lebanon” group over ties to Hezbollah, saying it raised $4.5 million for the terror group.

April 7

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah declares that Bashar al-Assad’s regime is no longer in danger of falling.

March

March 23

Battles rages between Hezbollah and Salafists in Beirut’s predominantly Sunni Tariq al-Jdideh neighborhood, prompting the LAF to deploy troops to calm the violence. Days earlier, similar sectarian clashes in Tripoli killed 25 people.

March 18

Sunni-Shiite clashes erupt across Lebanon over Hezbollah’s involvement in the Syrian Civil War. Bulgaria declares that it is certain Hezbollah was behind the 2012 Burgas bus bombing and identifies a third suspect trained in south Lebanon.

March – April

The Third Phase of the Battle of Qalamoun begins. The battle ends with a decisive Assad regime and Hezbollah victory, who, together, took almost full control of the Qalamoun mountains region on the Syrian-Lebanese border – linking Damascus to Hezbollah’s Beqaa stronghold – including the Al-Nabek and Yabroud districts.

March 17

A suicide car bomb in the village of al-Nabi Othman, in the Hezbollah-dominated Beqaa Valley, kills four people, including local Hezbollah leader Abdul Rahman al-Qadhi. Nusra Front claimed the attack.

March 16

Syrian troops and Hezbollah seize rebel supply town of Yabroud, near the Syria-Lebanon border.

March 5

IDF troops fire on two Hezbollah fighters trying to plant a bomb on the fence dividing the Israeli-held portion of the Golan Heights from the Syrian side.

February

February - March

The second phase of the battle of Qalamoun begins.

February 1

Nusra Front carries out suicide car bombing in Hezbollah-controlled Hermel, killing four and wounding 15.

January

January 21

The Nusra Front carries out car bombing in Haret Hreik, a neighborhood in Hezbollah’s south Beirut stronghold, killing four people and wounding 35.

January 16

The Special Tribunal for Lebanon begins trial-in-absentia of four Hezbollah members suspected of murdering Rafic Hariri.

January 7

Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Yaalon denies reports that Hezbollah has acquired Russian-made Yakhont advanced anti-ship missiles.

January 4

ISIS begins its rise by taking control of Fallujah in Iraq, and the Syrian city of Raqqa.

January 2

Car bombing in the Haret Hreik neighborhood of Hezbollah’s stronghold in suburbs of south Beirut kills five, wounds 60. U.S. officials say Hezbollah has acquired Russian-made Yakhont anti-ship missiles.

2013

December

December 27

Anti-Assad Lebanese MP Mohammad Chattah – a Sunni Muslim – is killed in a car bombing in Beirut. Saad Hariri implicitly blames Hezbollah for the attack.

December 4

Hassan Laqis, a senior Hezbollah commander, is gunned down in his home in the south Beirut suburb neighborhood of Hadath, in the group’s Dahiyeh stronghold. Laqis was Hezbollah’s master technician and logistics expert. Hezbollah blames Israel for the attack, but Jerusalem denies responsibility. The attack comes one day after Hassan Nasrallah accused Saudi Arabia of responsibility for the attack outside Beirut’s Iranian Embassy.

November

November 19

Twin Al-Qaeda bombings target Iran’s embassy in Beirut, killing 23 and wounding 140 others. Hezbollah’s Deputy Secretary-General Naim Qassem vows that Hezbollah will not be deterred from supporting Assad.

November – December

The first phase of the battle of Qalamoun is launched. The opposition claims Hezbollah deployed 15,000 fighters.

November 14

Nasrallah makes a rare public appearance, vowing to keep Hezbollah’s forces in Syria until Assad emerges victorious in the Syrian Civil War.

August

August 23

Twin car bombings target anti-Assad Sunni mosques in Tripoli, Lebanon, killing 47.The attack was the deadliest since the end of the Lebanese Civil War. Al-Qaeda’s North African branch blames Hezbollah and threatens retaliation.

August 13

Sunni militant group calling itself “Battalions of Ayesha” detonates a bomb in Hezbollah’s stronghold in south Beirut, killing 22 people and wounding 228. The group promises more attacks against Hezbollah for its involvement in Syria.

August 7

Hezbollah carries out an IED attack against IDF troops on the Lebanese-Israeli border, wounding four soldiers. One week later, Hezbollah’s Hassan Nasrallah claims responsibility for the attack.

July

July 22

The European Union adds Hezbollah’s “military wing” to its terror list.

July 16

An explosion strikes a Hezbollah convoy carrying the group’s security officials in Lebanon’s Beqaa Valley. Three Hezbollah members are injured in the attack.

July 9

A group called the “313 Brigade” claims responsibility for an attack in Beirut targeting Hezbollah members and wounding 53 people.

June

June 19

The Free Syrian Army (FSA) accuses Hezbollah and the Syrian Army of using chemical weapons in an attack on the town of Zamalka, outside of Damascus.

June 18

Clashes erupt again between followers of Salafist sheikh Ahmad al-Assir and Hezbollah in Sidon. Automatic rifles and RPGs are used in the confrontations.

June 10

The Gulf Cooperation Council pledges sanctions against Hezbollah for its role in the Syrian Civil War.

June 9

Hezbollah supporters shoot and kill Hisham Salman, an anti-Assad protester, in Beirut at a demonstration outside the Iranian embassy. They also attack other anti-Assad demonstrators, injuring several.

June 5

The Arab League condemns Hezbollah’s military intervention in Syria. Meanwhile, Hezbollah and the Syrian Army take Qusayr from rebel forces.

June 3

The Gulf Cooperation Council labels Hezbollah a terror organization.

June 2

Hezbollah deploys 2,000 fighters around Aleppo in support of Bashar al-Assad’s forces. A Hezbollah commander announces that the group had deployed “no more than 10,000” fighters in Syria, 3,000 of them in Qusayr alone.

June 1

Syrian rebels fire 18 rockets into the Hezbollah-controlled Baalbek region in response to the group’s involvement in Qusayr. This volley happens six days after two rockets were fired into Hezbollah-controlled south Beirut.

May

May 29

Hezbollah bolsters forces in the Syrian town of Qusayr, sending 1,700 fighters to support Assad’s forces in retaking the strategic town.

May 25

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah admits Hezbollah has been fighting on behalf of Bashar al-Assad in the Syrian Civil War. Hezbollah’s regional popularity begins to plummet.

May 4

Hezbollah’s Ibrahim Amin al-Sayyed says Hezbollah will not intervene in Syrian conflict but would act to prevent Israel and the United States from intervening.

April

April 25

The IAF shoots down a drone off the coast of Haifa. Israel accuses Hezbollah of sending the drone, but the group denies responsibility.

March

March 26

Bahrain’s parliament labels Hezbollah a terrorist organization.

February

February 21

A terror suspect arrested in Cyprus days before Burgas bombing admits Hezbollah ties, and says he was tasked by the group with staking out Israeli targets.

February 17

Three Hezbollah fighters are killed in clashes on the Lebanese-Syrian border with opposition forces.

February 5

Hezbollah is linked to the Burgas bus bombing by Bulgarian officials after a six-month investigation.

January

January 30

Israel begins carrying out clandestine airstrikes in Syria to prevent the transfer of “game-changing” weapons to Hezbollah. Hours earlier, Syrian opposition sources accused Hezbollah of military intervention in support of the Assad regime and attacking three villages in the Qusayr region, leading to civilian casualties and the exodus of hundreds of people.

2012

November

November 11

Armed clashes erupt between Sunni supporters of Salafist sheikh Ahmad al-Assir and Shiite supporters of Hezbollah in Sidon, after Assir called on his followers to remove Hezbollah banners in the city. Month earlier, Assir had threatened Nasrallah because of Hezbollah’s involvement in the Syrian Civil War and its suspected involvement in the murder of Wissam al-Hassan.

October

October 27

Pressure in Lebanon mounts against Hezbollah as indications increase that it has gone beyond mere verbal support for the Assad regime and has become a partisan to the Syrian Civil War.

October 19

Lebanese Army’s Major General Wissam al-Hassan, a Lebanese intelligence chief and key Lebanese Sunni leader aligned with March 14 and Hariri’s Mustaqbal bloc, is assassinated. Hezbollah denies accusations of being behind the attack and keeps a low profile as enraged Sunni gunmen take to the streets of Beirut after al-Hassan’s funeral. However, Hezbollah Deputy Secretary-General Naim Qassem warns against international involvement in the investigation of Hassan’s murder, as an FBI team lands in Beirut to assist in the investigation. Sunni politicians call for the downfall of the Mikati government but, as Mustaqbal’s Nouhad Machnouk noted, “we mean Hezbollah.”

October 17

Near-daily clashes occur between Hezbollah fighters and the Free Syrian Army on the Lebanese-Syrian border. Syrian activists continue accusing Hezbollah’s forces of being directly involved in Bashar Al-Assad’s 19-month effort to crush the rebel uprising, and say the group was transporting weapons and ammunition across the border “day and night” in ambulances and other civilian vehicles.

October 11

Hezbollah admits launching a drone over Israel, flying in from over the Mediterranean. The organization claims that the parts of the drone were made in Iran, but assembled in Lebanon, and had flown over “sensitive sites,” in Israel before being shot down by Israeli F-16s north of the Negev. Hassan Nasrallah denies Hezbollah’s involvement in fighting alongside Assad’s forces in the Syrian Civil War, saying the party has yet to decide on entering the battle. However, he claims that some Lebanese living near the Syrian-Lebanese border may have entered Syria in support of the regime, “to defend themselves,” and that while his party “has nothing to do with their decision, I cannot tell them not to go fight.”

October 7

Al-Arabiya reveals documents seized from Syrian intelligence, one of which – dated December 12, 2005 – indicates that Hezbollah’s intelligence units helped the Syrian regime assassinate Gebran Tueni, Editor-in-Chief of An-Nahar.

October 3

Three Hezbollah fighters are killed in a blast at a depot in Nabi Sheet, 18 miles south of Baalbek, used to store unexploded Israeli munitions.

October 2

Hezbollah commander Ali Hussein Naseef’s body is returned to Lebanon after he was killed with other group members fighting in Syria’s Qusair a day earlier. Naseef was a high-ranking member and founder of the Shiite group. A Lebanese security official notes that the bodies of several other Hezbollah fighters had been returned to Lebanon from Syria over the past few days. Hezbollah sources did not confirm where Naseef had been killed, only that he had died “while performing his jihadi duties,” a euphemism which has since been routinely applied to its fighters who have died in Syria. They also say Hezbollah was carrying out recruitment efforts in south Lebanon and the Bekaa valley to send fighters to Syria.

September

September 26

American and Lebanese officials claim Hezbollah has ramped up its support for Bashar al-Assad’s regime, sending him military advisers to assist with the battle against opposition forces. Lebanese officials also claim that Hezbollah’s fighters were fighting and dying in the conflict to save Assad, citing the increasing number of Hezbollah graves being quietly dug, with the families of the “martyrs” being warned by the party not to discuss the circumstances of their sons’ deaths.

September 18

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah gives rare public address, calling for supporters to protest a film mocking the Islamic prophet Mohammad, saying their anger should not be directed at Christians, but towards the United States and Israel. Diplomats from the U.S. Embassy in Beirutbegin destroying classified material as a security precaution amid the anti-American protests.

September 13

The United States Treasury Department sanctions senior officials of Hezbollah, including Hassan Nasrallah, Talal Hamiyeh and Mustafa Badreddine for supporting the Assad regime, pursuant to Executive Orders 13582 and 13224.

September 3

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah gives interview to Al-Mayadeen denying Hezbollah has chemical weapons but claims Hezbollah can strike “targets in Israel that will lead to the same result,” and make Israel suffer in a future war.

August

August 22

The defunct Lebanese Canadian Bank continues to deny any connection to Hezbollah.

August 20

The United States seizes $150 million linked to Hezbollah money laundering through the Lebanese-Canadian Bank(LCB).

August 10

The United States Treasury Department sanctions Hezbollah for involvement in the Syrian Civil War and support of the Assad regime. This action added Hezbollah to a U.S. blacklist associated with an executive order signed by President Barack Obama in August of 2011, which targeted the government of Syria and its supporters.

August 8

Hezbollah’s Mousa Ali Chehimi is killed “carrying out his jihadi duty,” i.e. while fighting on behalf of Bashar al-Assad’s regime in Syria. Hezbollah does not officially acknowledge the circumstances of his death. He is buried two days later, with Hezbollah parliamentarians in attendance.

July

July 24

Israeli Foreign Minister Avigdor Liberman says that any attempt by Hezbollah to obtain non-conventional weapons would be a “red line” and “casus belli” for Israel.

July 19

U.S. officials identify suicide bomber of Burgas Bus as the member of a Hezbollah cell operating in Bulgaria.

July 18

Hezbollah operative bombs a bus in Burgas, Bulgaria carrying forty-two Israelis – mostly youths. Six people are killed, and 32 injured.

February

February 16

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah denies Hezbollah’s role in the bombing of the Israeli targets.

February 13

Israeli diplomatic assets in India, Georgia and Thailand are attacked. Hezbollah is suspected of involvement.

February 7

Hezbollah chief Hassan Nasrallah acknowledges for the first time that his movement received financial and material support from Iran but denies that it took instructions or orders from the Islamic Republic.

January

January 19

Western intelligence assessments indicate Hezbollah is exploiting the Syrian Civil War to obtain advanced weapons, including long-range rockets and Russian-made air-defense systems. The IDF begins working under the assumption that Hezbollah has obtained long-range surface-to-air missile systems from Syria, like SA-8s, with a range of 30 kilometers. That same day, Samir Geagea, the head of the Lebanese Forces party, calls on Hezbollah to accept a “historic deal” and disarm, as Assad’s regime is doomed to fail.

Summer 2012

Hezbollah begins quietly digging more graves for fighters killed in Syria, even as it publicly continues to deny its involvement in the neighboring country’s civil war.

2011

December

December 30

The Special Tribunal for Lebanon hands over indictments and four arrest warrants to Lebanon, and Hariri urges Mikati’s government to cooperate.

December 15

Several U.S. businesses, including two based in Maryland, are sued by the Federal government over helping Hezbollah launder money via cocaine and used car sales.

December 13

Hezbollah reveals the names of what it alleges were members of a CIA spy-ring operating in Lebanon. The disclosure comes after Hezbollah claims that it managed to partially unravel the Agency’s spy network in Lebanon by running a double agent against the CIA, according to U.S. intelligence officials. Nasrallah had bragged earlier in June that his group had identified at least two CIA spies, and called the U.S. Embassy in Beirut a “den of spies.” Meanwhile, in Alexandria, VA, Ayman Joumaa is indicted on charges of drug and money laundering on behalf of Hezbollah, and The New York Times publishes a report pointing to the “direct involvement of high-level Hezbollah officials in the South American cocaine trade.”

December 6

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah makes his first public appearance since the 2006 war, to give a live address to his supporters on Ashoura. His public appearance lasts only a few minutes, after which he gives a televised speech. During the speech, he says the group will never give up its arms, boasting Hezbollah has “tens of thousands of trained fighters, all ready to die,” to protect its arms. Though he says he supports reform in Syria, he lashes out at the Syrian opposition for warning that a new Syrian government would cut its special relationship with Iran and Hezbollah.

November

November 20

The CIA reportedly shuts down its Lebanon operations after Hezbollah counterintelligence allegedly uncovers the Agency’s networks in the country.

November 11

Hassan Nasrallah threatens in “Martyr’s Day” speech that a U.S.-Israeli strike on Iran would ignite a regional war.

August

August 28

Hezbollah buries its fighter Hussein Ali Samaha, who died “fulfilling his jihadi duty,” a euphemism for dying while fighting in Syria. At the time, Hezbollah had yet to acknowledge its participation in the Syrian Civil War.

August 17

The Special Tribunal for Lebanon publicly releases its indictment of those allegedly responsible for former Prime Minister Rafic Hariri’s assassination, naming four Hezbollah members – including Mustafa Badreddine.

July

July 29

The Special Tribunal for Lebanon names four Hezbollah men as wanted for former Prime Minister Rafic Hariri’s murder: Mustafa Badreddine, Salim Jamil Ayyash, Hussein Hassan Oneissi, and Assad Hassan Sabra.

June

June 13

Mikati forms a new Lebanese government made up exclusively of Hezbollah and its political allies.

April

April 8

Leaked Israeli diplomatic cables reveal that Jerusalem expects the next war with Hezbollah to be “much more painful.” According to the Israeli assessment, the war with Hezbollah will last two months, and Jerusalem expects the group to launch 24,000-36,000 rockets at Israel – 6,000 of them at Tel Aviv alone – at a rate of 100 missiles per day.

March

March 31

The IDF releases a military map detailing a target-bank of more than 950 Hezbollah sites in southern Lebanon.

March 15

The Syrian Civil War begins.

March 14

Tens of thousands of supporters of Saad Hariri’s toppled government rally in Beirut’s Martyrs’ Square against Hezbollah’s weapons.

March 1

The UK designates Hezbollah’s External Security Organization as a terror group.

February

February 17

Israel temporarily shuts down its embassy in Ankara and Israeli consulate in Istanbul following Hezbollah’s threats to avenge the death of slain commander Imad Mughniyeh. Israeli embassies worldwide are placed on heightened alert.

February 16

During a tour of the northern border, Israeli Defense Minister Ehud Barak threatens that the IDF may have to reenter Lebanon to remind Hezbollah of “the heavy beating they suffered from us in 2006.” Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah threatens in a speech on the “Anniversary of the Martyred Leaders,” that Hezbollah will invade and “liberate” Israel’s Galilee in the next war.

February 10

The United States Treasury Department accuses Beirut-based Lebanese Canadian Bank – one of Lebanon’s largest financial institutions – of laundering millions of dollars for a multinational drug trafficking organization with ties to Hezbollah. The bank denied knowledge of wrongdoing and promised full cooperation.

January

January 25

Hezbollah nominee Najib Mikati is named as Lebanon’s new prime minister-designate and is tasked with forming a government after the Shiite group and its allies collapsed the national unity government of Saad Hariri 13 days earlier. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton says Hezbollah’s domination of the new government would affect bilateral U.S.-Lebanon ties. Throughout Lebanon, thousands rally against Mikati accepting the premiership, saying his appointment threatens the equities of Lebanese Sunnis.

January 17

The Special Tribunal for Lebanon prosecutor issues sealed indictments over Hariri’s assassination. These indictments are later revised.

January 12

Hezbollah ministers and political allies resign, bringing down Saad Hariri’s government, over the Special Tribunal for Lebanon’s investigation into former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri’s murder.

2010

December

December 16

Iran reportedly cuts Hezbollah’s aid by 40%

December 7

Wikileaks publishes U.S. Embassy Damascus cable revealing that Hezbollah has military facilities in Syria.

November

November 21

Lebanese political officer and UN investigators unearth circumstantial evidence linking Hezbollah to Rafic Hariri’s assassination.

October

October 28

Hezbollah urges all Lebanese to boycott the UN-backed Special Tribunal for Lebanon inquiry and accuses investigators of sending information to Israel.

October 13

Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad visits Lebanon, in a show of support for Tehran’s proxy Hezbollah.

October 11

New Zealand designates Hezbollah’s military wing as a terror group, renewing the designation twice: on October 2, 2013, and September 26, 2016.

August

August 25

UN prosecutor investigating former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri’s assassination urges Hezbollah to hand over information that the organization claimed implicated Israel in Hariri’s murder.

August 10

Fears of domestic unrest in Lebanon rise as the Special Tribunal for Lebanon indictment nears. Hezbollah attempts to discredit the Tribunal amid indications its members would be accused of murdering former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri.

August 9

Hezbollah accuses Israel of assassinating former Prime Minister Rafic Hariri.

July

July 30

Syrian President Bashar al-Assad arrives in Lebanon, jointly with Saudi King Abdullah, to defuse tensions and violence that erupted after reports indicated the Special Tribunal for Lebanon was set to implicate Hezbollah members in former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri’s assassination.

July 4

Ayatollah Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah, often regarded as Hezbollah’s spiritual guide, dies at age 74.

May

May 21

Hezbollah mobilizes thousands of fighters ahead of an Israeli military drill across the border.

May 12

Israel claims a shipment of North Korean weapons seized a year earlier in Thailand was intended for Hezbollah.

May 5

Israeli defense officials claim Syria delivered M600 rockets – a Syrian copy of the Iranian Fateh-110 – to Hezbollah.

May 2010

Hezbollah opens its “Mleeta Resistance Tourism Landmark.”

April

April 28

U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates accuses Syria of arming Hezbollah with advanced weapons, alleged by Israel to be SCUD missiles.

April 13

Reports indicate Syria transferred SCUD missiles to Hezbollah.

March

March 22

Satellite images reveal Hezbollah training at a Syrian Army SCUD missile base near Damascus.

February

February 26

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah travels to Damascus again, and meets with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.

February 19

Three men are charged in Miami with financing Hezbollah.

2009

November

November 30

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah reveals the party’s 2009 Political Document. According to later comments by Hezbollah’s Deputy Secretary-General Naim Qassem, the new document is intended to update the 1985 Open Letter, but does not abrogate any of its principles or Hezbollah’s commitment to Wilayat al-Faqih.

November 24

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah travels to Damascus and meets with Bashar al-Assad in Damascus.

November 19

Hezbollah finishes its eighth conclave and says it will announce a new political document in the coming days.

June

June 7

Hariri’s March 14 coalition defeats Hezbollah and the Free Patriotic Movement in parliamentary elections. Hariri is appointed Prime Minister-designate and forms a unity government on November 9.

April

April 2009

Egypt announces that, in November 2008, it dismantled and arrested a terror cell, including members of Hezbollah, which was planning attacks against Israeli and Egyptian targets in the Sinai.

March

March 1

The Special Tribunal for Lebanon begins operations in The Hague.

2008

December

December 28

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah delivers a speech condemning Israel’s Operation Cast Lead, but says his party would not open south Lebanon as another front against the IDF – unlike in 2006.

August

August 28

Hezbollah shoots down an LAF helicopter overflying one of its strongholds in south Lebanon, killing the pilot, Captain Samer Hanna.  Hezbollah calls the incident “tragic,” and hands over the pilot’s killer to Lebanese authorities. Lebanon’s Defense Minister Elias Murr moves to quickly absolve the group.

August 18

Hezbollah signs an agreement with the Salafi movement in Lebanon, outlining efforts to “confront America.”

July

July 16

Hezbollah and Israel complete prisoner swap. Hezbollah returns the bodies of servicemen Eldad Regev and Ehud Goldwasser – who’s kidnapping touched off the Second Lebanon War – in exchange for convicted murderer Samir Kuntar, four Hezbollah fighters captured by Israeli troops during the Second Lebanon War, and the bodies of hundreds of Lebanese, Palestinian and other Arab fighters who had died fighting Israeli forces.

July 11

Lebanese leaders agree on a unity government that gives effective veto power to Hezbollah and its allies.

July 2

UK extends terror designation to Hezbollah’s entire military apparatus, including its Jihadi Council.

May

May 21

The Doha Agreement is reached by rival Lebanese factions, ending the country’s 18-month political crisis, but also offering Hezbollah a resounding victory, granting its demand for one-third veto in the Lebanese cabinet.

Early May - Mid-May

The 2008 conflict in Lebanon begins. Prime Minister Fouad Siniora’s government moves to shut down Hezbollah’s telecommunications network and dismiss Wafiq Shqeir, the pro-Hezbollah security chief at Beirut International Airport, who was accused of installing cameras for the group on airport lane number 17 to allow it to monitor travelers. The next day, armed pro-Hezbollah demonstrators move to take over West Beirut. Nasrallah appears on TV calling the government’s decision to move against Hezbollah a “declaration of war,” leading to the outbreak of clashes between Hezbollah “black shirts” and gunmen loyal to Saad Hariri’s Future Movement. Hezbollah roundly defeats them, seizing large swathes of the city, before handing those areas over to the LAF. The fighting ended when the LAF pledged to allow Hezbollah to maintain is telecoms network and reinstall the airport security chief.

February

February 12

The Mossad and CIA assassinate Hezbollah commander Imad Mughniyeh using a car bomb in Damascus.

2007

December

December 12

The LAF head of operations Brigadier General Francois al-Hajj is assassinated after a car bomb detonates in Beirut.

November

November 23

Presidential term of Emile Lahoud – a staunch ally of Syria and Hezbollah – comes to an end.

July

July 24

The United States sanctions two Hezbollah NGOs – The Good Loan (Al-Qard al-Hassan) and the Martyr’s Foundation (Mu’assassat al-Shahid).

June

June – September

Two anti-Syrian Lebanese parliamentarians are assassinated by car bombs in Beirut.

February

February 8

The LAF confiscates a weapons truck from Hezbollah. The group demands its return, but the LAF refuses – arguing that the confiscated weapons would be used by Hezbollah to confront the IDF in the south.

January

January 22

In a speech, Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah calls for a general strike, which cripples Lebanon. The strike escalates into civil unrest and violence, including use of snipers, automatic weapons, and destruction of property, reminiscent of the Lebanese Civil War. Nasrallah, in an unprecedented move, calls on his supporters and all Lebanese to immediately vacate the streets and restore calm.

2006

December

December 1

Hezbollah and its FPM allies begin massive sit-ins in Beirut, demanding a national unity government where the opposition would possess one-third veto power.

November

November 21

Industry Minister Pierre Gemayel – an anti-Syrian politician who is a member of the March 14-allied Kataeb Party – is gunned down. Hezbollah’s involvement is suspected.

November 11

Talks over giving Hezbollah and its allies more power in the government collapse, leading to resignation of five pro-Syrian ministers loyal to Hezbollah and the Amal movement.

August

August 29

The United States Treasury Department sanctions the Islamic Resistance Support Association, one of Hezbollah’s fundraising arms.

August 11

The UN Security Council passes Resolution 1701, prohibiting Hezbollah from operating south of the Litani River.

July

Mid-July – Mid-August 2006

The Second Lebanon War begins after Hezbollah launches a cross-border raid into northern Israel, killing eight Israeli soldiers and kidnapping two – Ehud Goldwasser and Eldad Regev – to exchange them for the release of Samir Kuntar, a Lebanese Druze serving a life-sentence in Israeli prison for the 1979 murder of Danny Haran and his four-year-old daughter, Einat. The 34 day war ends in a stalemate. 121 Israeli soldiers and 44 civilians are killed by Hezbollah. 43 Lebanese security personnel and almost 1,200 Lebanese civilians die as a result of Israeli operations. As many as 800 Hezbollah fighters are killed by the IDF during the operation.

June

June 21

Lebanese TV station LBCI airs a satirical episode mocking Hezbollah’s Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah, prompting angry demonstrators to threaten to burn down the TV station’s headquarters. Nasrallah has to intervene to calm the crowd.

May

May 27

Hezbollah fires rockets into northern Israel, wounding an Israeli soldier, likely in retaliation for the killing of Palestinian Islamic Jihad commander Mahmoud al-Majzoub by a car bomb in Sidon. Israel responds with airstrikes, killing two of the group’s fighters.

February

February 6

Hezbollah signs memorandum of understanding with General Michel Aoun’s Free Patriotic Movement (FPM), solidifying its alliance with the future president of Lebanon.

2005

November

November 21

Five Hezbollah fighters attack an IDF outpost in Ghajar and are killed by paratroopers manning the position. Israeli Air Force jets retaliate with strikes on Hezbollah targets in south Lebanon, and Hezbollah responds with firing mortars and rockets into northern Israel, wounding nine soldiers and two civilians.

October

October 20

International investigation into the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri submits a report to UN Security Council, with its preliminary findings implicating high-ranking Syrian and Lebanese officials in Hariri’s murder.

October – December

Hezbollah’s military chief Imad Mughniyeh visits the Gaza Strip after Israel’s August 15 – September 12, 2005 disengagement and withdrawal. Mughniyeh entered via a tunnel from Egyptian Rafah, and met with Ahmad Jaabari, then the deputy commander of Hamas’ Qassam Brigades.

June

June 28

Hezbollah mortar fire kills an Israeli soldier, prompting retaliatory Israeli Air Force raids against Hezbollah in south Lebanon. Hezbollah responds with an attack in the Shebaa Farms, wounding six IDF soldiers, leading to an Israeli reprisal strike that kills a Hezbollah fighter.

June 19

Lebanese parliamentary elections end in victory for March 14 anti-Syrian alliance led by Saad Hariri.

June 16

International investigation into Hariri’s assassination begins.

June

Israeli paratroopers open fire on a three-man Hezbollah unit attempting to infiltrate Israel, killing one.

April

April 26

The last Syrian soldiers leave Lebanon.

April 19

Trad Hamade, a sympathizer and non-official member of Hezbollah, is appointed as Minister of Labor in Prime Minister Najib Miqati’s cabinet, a first for the group.

April 7

Hezbollah kidnaps two Israeli Arab citizens from border town of Ghajar, interrogating them for four days before releasing them.

March

March 8

Hezbollah organizes a pro-Syrian demonstration of half a million of its supporters and sympathizers.

February

February 14

Former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri and 21 others are killed in a roadside bombing, initiating a series of assassinations and bombings of Lebanese anti-Syrian politicians and figures. Hezbollah and Syria are suspected of responsibility.

January

January 9

A Hezbollah roadside bomb in northern Israel kills one IDF soldier.

2004

December

December 14

The United States bans al-Manar.

December 13

The French government bans Hezbollah’s al-Manar TV from broadcasting in France.

November

November 30

250,000 Lebanese – one-third of whom were Hezbollah supporters – demonstrate against Resolution 1559.

November 11

Hezbollah flies a Mirsad-1 drone from south Lebanon into northern Israel for approximately 20 minutes, returning to Lebanon before the IAF could intercept it.

September

September 2

UN Security Council adopts Resolution 1559 which, among other things, implicitly calls for disarming Hezbollah.

July

July 19

Hezbollah official Ghaleb Awwali is assassinated by a car bomb allegedly planted by Israeli intelligence agents. Hezbollah retaliates the next day with sniper fire on IDF border posts, killing two soldiers. The IAF returns fire on Hezbollah positions in Ayta al-Shaab, killing one fighter.

June

June-August 16, 2004

Hezbollah holds its seventh conclave and appoints Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah as the head of the Jihadi Council.

May

May 27

The LAF fires on Hezbollah demonstrators throwing rocks at them, killing five and wounding several others, prompting riots throughout Hezbollah’s south Beirut Dahiyeh stronghold. Nasrallah accuses the U.S. Embassy in Beirut of prompting the violence. Nasrallah then meets with Prime Minister Rafic Hariri, prompting a governmental condemnation of the shootings by Lebanese security forces.

May 7

Hezbollah and Israel engage in a cross-border clash. The Israelis claim Hezbollah shelled Israeli outposts in the Shebaa Farms, and IDF forces retaliate with overnight fire. Hezbollah claims an Israeli patrol infiltrated Lebanese territory.

January

January 29

Israel and Hezbollah exchange prisoners. Hezbollah returns Elchanan Tannenbaum and the bodies of three Israeli soldiers. Israel releases hundreds of Arab and Lebanese prisoners, including Sheikh Abdel Karim Obeid, the Imam of the south Lebanon village of Jibchit who was regarded as the ‘spiritual leader’ of the Islamic Amal faction of proto-Hezbollah, and Mustafa Dirani, a former high-ranking Amal Movement official who established the “Believing Resistance” faction after being expelled by Amal and establishing contact with Iranian officials.

January 19

Hezbollah fires anti-tank missiles on an Israeli military bulldozer that crossed the Blue Line to clear explosives, killing one IDF soldier. The Israeli Air Force retaliates with airstrikes the next day on Hezbollah bases in the Bekaa Valley, causing an unknown number of casualties.

2003

October

October 6

Hezbollah fires antitank missiles on an IDF post, killing one soldier with small arms fire.

August

August 10

Hezbollah anti-aircraft shells fired into northern Israel kill an Israeli teenager and wound four civilians.

August 3

Hezbollah fires rockets at three Israeli military positions in the Shebaa Farms, one day after one of its members – Ali Hussein Saleh – was assassinated by a car bombing in Beirut believed to be conducted by Israeli intelligence.

July

July 22

Hezbollah fires anti-aircraft shells into Israel, killing two Israeli civilians in the town of Shlomi, in northern Israel.

July 20

Hezbollah snipers kill two IDF soldiers at a border post; the IDF retaliates with tank fire on a Hezbollah position, killing one fighter.

May

May 7

Hezbollah attacks IDF positions in the Shebaa Farms with rocket, mortar, and small arms fire, killing one soldier and wounding five.

March

Mid-March – Early May 2003

U.S. invades Iraq and Hezbollah forms Unit 3800 – its military branch responsible for operations in Iraq.

2002

December

December 20

Canada designates Hezbollah as a terror organization.

December 2002

The Israeli Air Force bombs multiple targets in Hezbollah-controlled areas of Lebanon, and Hezbollah responds with rocket fire on Kiryat Shmona, killing two Israeli civilians.

October

October 28

Hezbollah’s Deputy Secretary-General Naim Qassem confirms to The Daily Star that the organization is in the process of updating its Open Letter.

October 22

Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah makes his infamous speech saying that the Jews gathering in Israel spared the group going after them worldwide. During that speech, he also noted that the impending U.S. invasion of Iraq would spell the end of America’s regional hegemony.

August

August 29

Cross-border rocket fire from Hezbollah kills one IDF soldier and injures two.

March

March 12

Two fighters infiltrate Israel from Lebanon and open fire on Israeli civilian vehicles traveling on the Shlomi-Matzuva road. Six Israelis are killed, and one is injured. Israeli intelligence believes Hezbollah was responsible, but the group does not claim the attack at the time. Years later, Palestinian Islamic Jihad claims responsibility, but Hezbollah-affiliated media outlets say Hezbollah aided them in their mission.

2001

July

July 30

Hezbollah ends its sixth conclave, electing Hassan Nasrallah as Secretary-General for life, and places its media operations under his direct control in order to expand its propaganda outreach. Imad Mughniyeh is elected to the Shura Council. The group officially decides to update the Open Letter.

July 1

The Israeli Air Force (IAF) retaliates with strikes in Lebanon, killing three Syrian soldiers and one Lebanese soldier. Hezbollah responds by shelling northern Israel, and the IAF in return launches strikes on the group’s positions.

June

June 29

Hezbollah fighters fire anti-tank missiles and mortar shells at IDF positions, killing two soldiers.

April

April 14

Hezbollah fires an anti-tank missile at an IDF tank in the Shebaa Farms, killing one soldier.

February

February 16

Hezbollah targets an IDF convoy in the Shebaa Farms with anti-tank missiles, killing one soldier and wounding three.

January

January 31

Hezbollah fires six mortars at an Israeli outpost near the Lebanese border, causing no casualties.

2000

November

November 26

Hezbollah detonates an explosive charge against an IDF patrol in the Shebaa Farms, killing one soldier and wounding two.

October

October 15

Hezbollah kidnaps Elchanan Tannenbaum, an IDF reserves colonel and businessman, after one of its operatives lures him to Dubai with the promise of a cut from a lucrative drugdeal.

October 7

After the IDF’s withdrawal from south Lebanon, Hezbollah launches a cross-border raid, killing three Israeli soldiers and capturing their bodies. The raid marks the beginning of the so-called “Shebaa Farms Conflict,” which lasts until July 12, 2006, when the Second Lebanon War begins.

September

September 28

Hezbollah’s military chief Imad Mughniyeh establishes a unit within Hezbollah – likely Unit 133 – to provide military, media and intellectual support to the Palestinian intifada, the day of Ariel Sharon’s visit to the Temple Mount.

May

May 25

Israel withdraws from south Lebanon security zone, ending its 18-year occupation of Lebanese territory, and its South Lebanon Army proxy collapses. Hezbollah claims victory.

May 18

Hezbollah launches a large-scale attack on 30 SLA and IDF positions in the south Lebanon security zone, seizing the SLA’s 81stMechanized Infantry Regiment’s al-Bayada outpost, and capturing one T-54 tank, one M113 APC, and a half-track vehicle. Hezbollah loses one fighter – Mohammad Badreddine – in the assault. This is Hezbollah’s last “special operation” before the security zone’s collapse on May 25, 2000.

January

January 30

Hezbollah assassinates Col. Aql Hashem – the SLA’s second-in-command and responsible for its daily operations – with a bomb outside his farm in the south Lebanon village of Debel.

1999

December

December 30

Hezbollah conducts its fourteenth suicide bombing, on the road to Qlay’a. The group claims to have killed seven Israeli soldiers, while the IDF denies any casualties, saying the bomber had prematurely detonated his explosives.

October

October 15

Hezbollah infiltrates the South Lebanon Army’s outpost in Beit Yahoun and seizes an M113 APC.

February

February 28

Hezbollah assassinates IDF Brigadier General Erez Gerstein, commander of the IDF’s Lebanon Liaison Unit (Yakal) by detonating an IED near his motorcade. The attack kills three Israeli soldiers accompanying Gerstein. Gerstein is the highest-ranking Israeli officer to be killed in Lebanon to date.

1998

June

Mid-June – Late July

Hezbollah holds its fifth conclave, amending its bylaws to re-elect Hassan Nasrallah as Secretary-General for the third time. Hashem Saffiedine is appointed as the head of the Executive Council.

January

January 24

Hezbollah officially expels Subhi al-Tufayli from its membership.

1997

November

November 3

Hezbollah forms the multi-confessional “Lebanese Brigades to Resist the Israeli Occupation” – aka the Lebanese Resistance Brigades.

October

October 8

The United States Department of State designates Hezbollah as a Foreign Terrorist Organization.

September

September 12

Hassan Nasrallah’s son, Hadi, is killed in armed confrontation with Israeli soldiers in south Lebanon’s Jabal al-Rafi area of Iqlim al-Tuffah.

September 5

Hezbollah lays an ambush for Israeli naval commandos who landed south of Sidon, between the towns of Loubieh and Ansariya – north of the IDF-controlled south Lebanon security zone. The soldiers are ambushed upon entering a booby-trapped orchard. Only five of the 16 Israeli soldiers deployed survive.

1996

June

June 25

Hezbollah al-Hejaz detonates a truck bomb adjacent to Building #131, an eight-story structure housing members of the United States Air Force’s 4404th Wing, in the Saudi city of Khobar. 19 U.S. servicemen and one Saudi are killed in the attack, and 498 others from different nationalities are wounded.

April

April 18

For 17 minutes, IDF artillery fires 38 shells – two-thirds of which were equipped with proximity fuse anti-personnel mechanisms detonating the bomb before impact – on a UN compound near the village of Qana, where 800 Lebanese had taken refuge. The strikes kill 106 Lebanese civilians and wound two Fijian UNIFIL peacekeepers. A subsequent UN investigation rejects Israel’s explanation that the shelling was erroneous, based on video evidence showing an Israeli drone overflying the compound and broadcasting in real-time before the shelling began. Israel first denies the drone was there, but later recants when video evidence is produced. It still rejects the UN’s findings.

April 11

Hezbollah launches Katyusha rockets into northern Israel on March 30 and April 9, 1996in response to the IDF’s accidental killing of three Lebanese civilians, including a 16 year-old boy. Israel launches Operation Grapes of Wrath in a failed attempt to end Hezbollah’s shelling. Israel’s strategy is similar to 1993: targeting civilian areas to create massive displacement and pressure the Lebanese government to restrain Hezbollah. The strategy fails again and, just as in 1993, Hezbollah maintains rocket fire into northern Israel until a ceasefire. Three Israeli soldiers are killed, 62 civilians are wounded, and 20,000-30,000 are displaced. The operation results in the death of 170 Lebanese civilians (including 108 taking refuge at a UN Compound), 350 wounded, and 350,000-500,000 displaced. Israel succeeds in killing only 14 Hezbollah fighters. At the end of the war, a new, written understanding is reached between Israel and Hezbollah, once again committing to refrain from targeting civilians.

March

March 20

Hezbollah carries out its 13thsuicide bombing, killing two Israeli soldiers in ‘Adaisseh.

1995

July

July 1

Hezbollah convenes its fourth conclave, establishing its Jihadi Council – its military decision-making body – and appointing Hashem Saffiedine (Nasrallah’s maternal cousin) as its head.

May

May 17

Iran’s Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei appoints Hezbollah’s Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah, and Shura Council member Mohammad Yazbek, as his religious deputies in Lebanon.

April

April 25

Hezbollah carries out its twelfth suicide bombing, targeting an SLA outpost in Bint Jbeil, wounding eleven people.

February

February

Then-IDF Chief of Staff Amnon Lipkin-Shahak tasks the Golani Brigade’s commander with forming the Egoz special-forces unit – an elite counterterrorism unit within the Golani Brigade whose express purpose was to combat Hezbollah.

1994

October

October 29

Hezbollah fighters storm the IDF’s Pumpkin Outpost in the south Lebanon security zone. This was also the beginning of Hezbollah using its filmed footage of attacks on IDF positions in the media as propaganda and psychological warfare against the Israelis.

July

July 18

A Hezbollah suicide bomber strikes the AMIA Jewish Cultural Center in Buenos Aires, killing 86 people.

March

March 27

Three Hezbollah groups –the Martyr Ismail Hamzah Group, Martyr Jamal Shuheimi Group, and Martyr Hussein Kamal Younes Group – attack and seize the SLA’s Tallousa position, seizing abandoned equipment including T-55 tanks.

1993

September

September 13

Lebanese Internal Security Forces and Armed Forces kill 13 Hezbollah supporters, and wound 40, who were protesting the 1993 Oslo Accords between Israel and the Palestinians.

July

July 25

The IDF launches its punitive Operation Accountability in response to Hezbollah rocket fire into northern Israel. The IDF’s strategy is to target Lebanese civilian infrastructure to displace refugees and pressure the Lebanese government to restrain Hezbollah. The strategy fails, and Hezbollah remains virtually unscathed. An oral agreement is eventually reached whereby fighting between the IDF and Hezbollah is restricted to the Security Zone – a strip of Israeli-occupied Lebanese territory intended to act as a buffer between Hezbollah in south Lebanon and northern Israel. Israel agrees to refrain from attacking civilian Lebanese targets, and, in exchange, Hezbollah refrains from firing rockets into northern Israel. One Israeli soldier and as many as 50 Hezbollah fighters die during the operation. 120 Lebanese civilians are killed, 500 are wounded and 300,000 are displaced. Two Israeli civilians are killed, and 24 are wounded. Hezbollah keeps firing rockets into northern Israel until the ceasefire goes into effect.

May

May 15

Hezbollah convenes its third conclave, reelecting Hassan Nasrallah as its Secretary-General and Naim Qassem as his deputy. Hajj Muhsin al-Shakar, Hezbollah’s “central military commander,” is elected to the Shura Council.

January

January 28

Hezbollah attempts to assassinate Jak Kamhi, the head of Turkey’s Jewish community.

1992

September

September 21

Hezbollah carries out its eleventh suicide bombing, killing, and wounding 25 Israeli soldiers in the south Lebanon village of Jarmaq.

August

Late August – Early September 1992

Hezbollah runs in Lebanon’s first parliamentary elections since 1972, winning 12 seats.

July

July 27

Hezbollah evacuates the Sheikh Abdullah Barracks in the Bekaa Valley, returning it to the LAF– after forcefully seizing it from the LAF nine years prior – and takes with it several pieces of military equipment, including several M113s that Hezbollah would display in its Qusayr military parade in 2016.

March

March 17

A Hezbollah car bomb demolishes the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, killing 29 people, including four Israeli embassy personnel.

March 7

Hezbollah assassinates Ehud Sadan, the security chief of the Israeli Embassy in Ankara. Two Turkish passersby were also killed.

February

February 17

Hezbollah’s Shura Council convenes and unanimously elects 32-yr-old Hassan Nasrallah as Secretary-General.

February 16

Israeli Apache helicopters interdict and fire missiles on Abbas al-Mousaoui’s motorcade, in Nabatiyeh. The strike killed al-Mousaoui, his wife, his five year-old son, and four others.

January

1992

Hezbollah, under its own name, begins firing short-range Katyusha rockets into northern Israel to create what it calls a “balance of terror” with the IDF.

1991

September

September 11 - December 1, 1991

First prisoner-swap between Israel and Hezbollah occurs.

June

June 3

Al-Manar, Hezbollah’s official television station, is created.

May

May 22

Hezbollah holds its second conclave and decides to adopt a pragmatic policy of infitah (“opening up”). Infitah is a willingness to work within the current Lebanese system of government, while gradually working towards Hezbollah’s original goal of recreating Lebanon as an Islamic theocracy based on the Iranian model. Al-Tufayli, who wanted to maintain the party’s initial hardline stance of rejecting any recognition of the Lebanese state or even temporary cooperation with it is replaced with the pragmatic Abbas al-Mousaoui as Secretary-General, and Naim Qassem is appointed as al-Mousaoui’s deputy. During this conclave, Hezbollah’s Shura Council members are elected, rather than appointed.

1990

February

February

Two Saudi diplomats and one telex operator at the Saudi embassy in Bangkok are killed, a Saudi businessman is also abducted, and his body is never recovered. Hezbollah is suspected to have carried out the attack.

1989

November

November 11

Hezbollah convenes its first conclave, revealing the identity of its leaders and cadres. The conclave creates the post of Secretary-General, to which Sheikh Subhi al-Tufayli was appointed, and nominated a Shura (Consultative) Council.

October

October 22, 1989 – November 5, 1989

The Taef Agreement is signed and ratified by Lebanon’s parliament, ending the country’s civil war and disarming all Lebanese militias, except Hezbollah. To advance its own interests, Syria – Lebanon’s new hegemon – allowed Hezbollah to retain its arms as an officially sanctioned resistance group in accordance with Taef’s stipulation that the Lebanese State “must take all necessary measures to liberate Lebanese territory.”

August

August 9

Hezbollah carries out its tenth suicide bombing, killing five Israeli soldiers in Marjayoun.

1988

October

October 19

Hezbollah carries out its ninth suicide bombing, killing eight Israeli soldiers near the Fatima Gate on the Lebanese-Israeli border.

August

August 19

Hezbollah carries out its eighth suicide bombing, against an Israeli convoy in Marjayoun, killing one soldier.

May

May 9

Hezbollah’s al-Nour radio station begins broadcasting.

May 5

The first major direct encounter between Israeli forces and Hezbollah occurs in the village of Maydoun, as part of an IDF operation into the Western Beqaa.

April

April 5

Hezbollah hijacks Kuwait Airlines Flight 422, to force Kuwait to release the members of the “Kuwait 17,” and executes two Kuwaitis, dumping their bodies on the tarmac.

April 5, 1988 – November 1990

Hezbollah and rival Lebanese Shiite party Amal – backed by Syria – clash as part of the so-called “War of the Camps.” Amal, backed by Damascus, launches the armed campaign against Hezbollah in response to Higgins’ kidnapping. The clashes finally end when Damascus and Tehran hammer out the so-called “Second Damascus Agreement,” in late 1990.

March

March 11

Hezbollah carries out its seventh suicide bombing, near the northern Israeli town of Metula, killing 12 IDF soldiers.

February

February 17

Hezbollah kidnaps U.S. Marine Colonel William Higgins while he is working as a U.N. peacekeeper in south Lebanon. Hezbollah would later execute Higgins in 1989.

January

1988

The Consultative Center for Studies and Documentation, Hezbollah’s official think-tank, is established.

1987

June

June 24

Hezbollah assassinates Captain Kazem Darwish, the LAF intelligence officer at the LAF’s Tyre Barracksand its liaison officer with UNIFIL.

February

February 21

The Syrian Army, backed by the Amal militia, destroys Hezbollah’s Fathallah Barracks in West Beirut’s neighborhood of Basta, and kills 23 of its members. Hezbollah attempts to assassinate Colonel Ghazi Kanaan, the head of Syrian military intelligence in Lebanon, in response.

1986

December

Late 1986

Hezbollah begins filming its attacks against Israeli forces.

September

September 18

Hezbollah assassinates Col. Christian Goutierre, the French military attaché in Lebanon.

August

August 11

Hezbollah assassinates LAF Colonel Michel Ziyadeh, the LAF 1st Regiment’s Chief-of-Staff, in Rayak.

February

February 24

Hezbollah assassinates Suheil Tawilah, a member of the Lebanese Communist Party’s Central Committee and Editor-in-Chief of both its “Al-Tariq” Magazine and “Al-Nidaa” newspaper, dumping his body in al-Museitbeh in Beirut. Tawilah would be the first of several Lebanese Communists and other Leftist intellectuals killed by Hezbollah over the next two years.

February 16

Hezbollah kidnaps two Israeli soldiers in Bint Jbeil, prompting a six day unsuccessful retaliatory raid by the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) to retrieve its servicemen.

1985

December

December 7, 1985 – September 1986

Hezbollah carries out a bombing campaign in France for its support of Saddam Hussein against Iran during the Iran-Iraq war. The attacks kill 13 French citizens and injured hundreds.

November

November 2

Hezbollah assassinates LAF’s First Lieutenant George Shamoun in Rayak.

June

June 14

Hezbollah operatives, including Imad Mughniyeh, hijack TWA Flight 847 en route from Athens to Beirut. Mughniyeh kills U.S. Navy diver Robert Stethem, shooting him dead and then dumping his body on the runway at Beirut airport.

June 2

Hezbollah assassinates LAF Colonel Sleiman Mathloum – the commander of the LAF’s Rayak Airbase, in the Bekaa Governorate.

May

May 25

A Hezbollah suicide bomber attacks a motorcade carrying Kuwaiti emir Jaber al-Sabah, killing his two bodyguards and a bystander.

May 5

Hezbollah establishes its Imam al-Mahdi Scouts, which acts as an educational and recruitment tool for the group among Shiite youth.

April

April 12

Hezbollah bombs a restaurant near U.S. forces base in Torrejon, Spain, killing 18 U.S. servicemen and injuring 83.

February

February 16

Hezbollah announces its existence by publishing its Open Letter, the group’s foundational ideological document, on the anniversary of the death of Sheikh Ragheb Harb.

February 16 - June 1985

Israel withdraws from most of Lebanon’s territory to a 1,100 square kilometer security zone in the country’s south – or 15% of Lebanese land – including 168 cities and villages. This was the beginning of the South Lebanon Conflict between Hezbollah, Israel, and Israel’s predominantly Maronite Christian proxy, the South Lebanon Army (SLA).

1984

December

December 4

Hezbollah hijacked Kuwait Airlines Flight 221, executing two USAID officials and dumping their bodies onto the tarmac.

September

September 20

A Hezbollah suicide bomber drove a van laden with 3,000 pounds of explosives into the U.S. Embassy’s new location in East Beirut, killing 23 people – 21 Lebanese visitors and employees, and two American servicemen.

July

July 10, 1984 – December 30, 1986

Hezbollah began a kidnapping campaign targeting Lebanon’s small Jewish community, abducting and murdering eleven of its leading members. The bodies of only four hostages were ever recovered, all bearing evidence of torture before their executions. None of those kidnapped had been involved in Lebanese politics or the Israeli-Arab conflict, and all were committed Lebanese citizens.

June

June 18

Al-‘Ahd, Hezbollah’s official mouthpiece, is first published.

March

March 16

Hezbollah kidnaps CIA’s Beirut station chief, William Buckley. Buckley died in captivity around June 3, 1985.

February

February 16

Three Lebanese collaborators with Israel assassinate Sheikh Ragheb Harb, a Hezbollah leader in the south Lebanon village of Jibchit, which was a hotbed of the group’s illicit activities.

February 11

Hezbollah abducts American Frank Regier, an engineering professor at AUB, and Christian Joubert, a French citizen.

1983

December

December 12

Elements from proto-Hezbollah – including Mustafa Badreddine – carried out a 90-minute coordinated attack against several targets in Kuwait, intended to punish the country, as well as the U.S. and France, for their support for Saddam Hussein during the Iran-Iraq war. Five people – two Palestinians, two Kuwaitis, and one Syrian – were killed.

November

November 4

A truck laden with 500 kilograms of explosives once again struck Israeli military headquarters in Tyre, killing 28 Israeli security personnel and 32 Lebanese prisoners.

October

October 23

Two explosives-laden trucks driven by Hezbollah operatives struck separate buildings housing the Multinational Force in Lebanon peacekeepers, killing 241 U.S. Marines, 58 French paratroopers, and 6 Lebanese civilians.

October 4

Hezbollah conducts its fourth suicide bombing operation, against a UNRWA building in Tyre, killing 29 Israeli soldiers.

September

Early September 1983

Hezbollah forcefully seizes the Sheikh Abdullah Barracks, in the Bekaa Valley, from the Lebanese Army, ostensibly in response to Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) General Ibrahim Tannous shelling south Beirut.

April

April 18

A Hezbollah suicide bomber drove a delivery van packed with 2000 pounds of explosives into the U.S. Embassy in Beirut, killing 63 people: 32 Lebanese employees of the embassy, 17 Americans, and 14 visitors and passersby.

April 13

Hezbollah carries out its second suicide bombing operation, when one of its fighters detonated his car amidst an Israeli military convoy in south Lebanon’s Deir Qanoun al-Nahr, killing six soldiers and wounding four.

January

January 1983

Hezbollah – using the moniker “the Islamic Resistance” – launches its first barrage of Katyusha rockets into northern Israel and carries out the first attempted kidnapping of an Israeli soldier. The soldier died of his wounds and Hezbollah left his body behind in Lebanon.

1982

November

November 11

Hezbollah operative Ahmad al-Qasir drove an explosives-packed Peugeot into a multi-story building housing the Israeli military administration in Tyre. The attack leveled the building, and killed 75 Israeli security personnel and up to 14-27 Lebanese and Palestinian detainees.

July

July 19

Hezbollah kidnaps David Dodge, the acting president of American University of Beirut. Dodge, on July 21, 1983, was the first of dozens of foreign hostages kidnapped by Hezbollah – including Americans, Britons, French, Swiss, Russians and West Germans – during the Lebanese Civil War, with at least ten dying in captivity. Some were murdered, and others died of illnesses.

June

June 8

Hezbollah is founded out of preexisting Lebanese Shiite groups, but does not officially declare its existence.

May

May 25

Al-Jihad al-Islami – believed to be a pseudonym for Hezbollah – bombs the French embassy in Beirut, killing 12 and wounding 27. The attack occurred two weeks prior to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, the date commonly believed to coincide with Hezbollah’s founding.